Aqidah linguistically comes from the word (‘aqada-ya’qidu-aqidatan) which means bond, or agreement. In terms of the heart’s belief in something. The word ‘aqidah’ can be used for teachings contained in Islam, and can also be used for other teachings outside of Islam. So that there are terms Islamic creed, Christian creed, Jewish creed, and other creeds. That way we can also conclude that there are true or straight beliefs and there are heretical or wrong beliefs. Likewise, aqidah
Islam (al-aqidah al-Islamiyah) can be interpreted as the main points of belief that must be believed to be true by everyone who claims to be Muslim (Muslim).
Talking about aqidah, first and foremost is the concept of divinity, then other concepts of aqidah are in accordance with the will of Allah Himself through His words in the Qur’an and the hadiths of His prophet. When someone believes in Islam, then the initial foundation for building his faith/belief is belief in Allah as God who must be worshiped, Almighty One, Creator and Ruler of the universe, and the Unseen Substance which is the source of all things, including the obligation to carry out His rules in all aspects of life whether related to worship or muamalah which are closely related to interactions with fellow creatures. Therefore, the first mission carried out by each Apostle to be conveyed to mankind is this concept of divinity. As the word of Allah SWT. in Qs. an-Nahl:36:
وَلَقَدْ بَعَثْنَا فِيْ كُلِّ اُمَّةٍ رَّسُوْلًا اَنِ اعْبُدُوا اللّٰهَ وَاجْتَنِبُوا الطَّاغُوْتَۚ فَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ هَدَى اللّٰهُ وَمِنْهُمْ مَّنْ حَقَّتْ عَلَيْهِ الضَّلٰلَةُ ۗ فَسِيْرُوْا فِى الْاَرْضِ فَانْظُرُوْا كَيْفَ كَانَ عَاقِبَةُ الْمُكَذِّبِيْنَ
That’s the concept of divinity that must be believed by someone who claims to believe in Islam, to believe in Him without the slightest doubt in it.
Fundamentals of Islamic Faith
Aqidah Islam is something that is tauqifi, meaning a teaching that can only be determined by the evidence from Allah and His Messenger. Thus, the source of the teachings of the Islamic creed is limited to the Al-Qur’an and Sunnah. Because, no one knows better about Allah except Allah Himself, then Rasulullah Saw. as the bearer of revelation from Allah SWT. Only then was the opinion of the authoritative scholars declared by the Prophet as his heir.
Al-Qur’an is the word of Allah SWT. which was revealed to the Prophet Muhammad. through the angel Gabriel. It is through the Qur’an that Allah pours out His words regarding the correct concept of aqidah which must be absolutely believed and lived and must not be bargained by all Muslims. In the Qur’an there are many verses that contain monotheism, including Qs. al-Ikhlas verses 1-4, and many others including:
(4) قُلْ هُوَ اللّٰهُ اَحَدٌۚ (1) اَللّٰهُ الصَّمَدُۚ (2) لَمْ يَلِدْ وَلَمْ يُوْلَدْۙ(3) وَلَمْ يَكُنْ لَّهٗ كُفُوًا اَحَدٌ
In an-Nisa ‘:136 Allah swt says:
يٰٓاَيُّهَا الَّذِيْنَ اٰمَنُوْٓا اٰمِنُوْا بِاللّٰهِ وَرَسُوْلِهٖ وَالْكِتٰبِ الَّذِيْ نَزَّلَ عَلٰى رَسُوْلِهٖ وَالْكِتٰبِ الَّذِيْٓ اَنْزَلَ مِنْ قَبْلُ ۗوَمَنْ يَّكْفُرْ بِاللّٰهِ وَمَلٰۤىِٕكَتِهٖ وَكُتُبِهٖ وَرُسُلِهٖ وَالْيَوْمِ الْاٰخِرِ فَقَدْ ضَلَّ ضَلٰلًا ۢ بَعِيْدًا
Hadith is all the sayings, deeds, and takrir (silence) of the Prophet Muhammad Saw. Islam has emphasized that hadith is the second source of Islamic law (after Al-Qur’an), both the source of law in creed and in all matters of life. Hal This is because everything that is based on the Prophet is a revelation from Allah, isn’t just following your passions. As firman Allah swt in the Al-Quran:
Qs. an-Najm: 3-4
(4) وَمَا يَنْطِقُ عَنِ الْهَوٰى (3) اِنْ هُوَ اِلَّا وَحْيٌ يُّوْحٰىۙ
مَآ اَفَاۤءَ اللّٰهُ عَلٰى رَسُوْلِهٖ مِنْ اَهْلِ الْقُرٰى فَلِلّٰهِ وَلِلرَّسُوْلِ وَلِذِى الْقُرْبٰى وَالْيَتٰمٰى وَالْمَسٰكِيْنِ وَابْنِ السَّبِيْلِۙ كَيْ لَا يَكُوْنَ دُوْلَةً ۢ بَيْنَ الْاَغْنِيَاۤءِ مِنْكُمْۗ وَمَآ اٰتٰىكُمُ الرَّسُوْلُ فَخُذُوْهُ وَمَا نَهٰىكُمْ عَنْهُ فَانْتَهُوْاۚ وَاتَّقُوا اللّٰهَ ۗاِنَّ اللّٰهَ شَدِيْدُ الْعِقَابِۘ
That is the basic order to follow Rasulullah SAW. through the hadiths.
The hadiths that explain the creed are as follows:
If we look at some of the hadiths above, we will find that their contents are not there is something that violates the contents of the Qur’an in this case related to the creed which commonly known as faith. This further strengthens our belief that Hadith is the second source of law after the Qur’an that must be followed by the people Islam is good in terms of faith or otherwise. The two are inseparable with others.
That’s it the meaning and basics of Aqidah Islam. Wallahu a’lam bish-shawab.